Guide Basic PC Guide - 2011 Version

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The operation manual for the CAN interface describes the functions supported by the corresponding sensor. The EDS-file and the relevant protocol description can be downloaded from our website at:. The EDS file electronic data sheet contains all the information on the parameters specific to the measurement system as well as the types of operation of the measurement system. The EDS file is integrated using the CANopen network configuration tool in order to be able to configure or operate the measurement system properly.

COM uses cookies for the best possible user experience. By using our internet site, you agree that we may store cookies on your device. If you refuse the use of cookies, the functionality of the internet site will be impaired.. Mobile Website. Sitemap Downloads Career Data privacy. Back Back. Examine the bandwidth specs before buying if multicard gaming is your aim to make sure you'll get the most performance possible from your card investment. Two flavors of the same dish, these terms refer to the ability of a motherboard to accept more than one graphics card and have the cards work additively to increase graphics performance.

The cards need to employ the same graphics processor. A physical bridging connector between cards, often supplied with SLI- or CrossFire-compatible motherboards, may be required for adequate bandwidth for communication between the cards. CrossFireX can be two to four cards; check the board specs for how many are supported. It's a modest boost at best, though. Also, know that a given game needs to have specific support for SLI or CrossFireX to see much of a benefit, and that this support is being de-emphasized by many game developers these days.

Method 1: Repair Windows Even If You Can't Get To Your Desktop

For most users, a single powerful video card will more than suffice. See our guide to the best graphics cards. These connect to matching wires in your PC's chassis that lead to "front panel" USB connectors situated on the case's exterior. A USB 2. The matching cable connector on your PC's case will have 10 pinholes powering two ports or five powering one port.

USB 3. You'll want to make sure any board you're buying has connectors that match what's on your PC case—and vice versa. Only a few PC cases, however, so far have a cable that works with this header. The header on the board looks like a cross between a regular USB Type-A port it's rectangular and an HDMI port in that it has a protruding set of contacts in the middle. The front-panel header is a grid of pins on the motherboard, often with some color coding or other on-board labeling, that accepts wires from your PC case.

To this set of pins, you'll connect the thin cables for the case's power and reset switches, as well as the hard drive activity and power-on LEDs and, in some designs, an onboard speaker. Most of the time, the pins for each connector are in pairs; know that the polarity of the pairs doesn't matter for the switch cables, but it does for the LEDs.

The motherboard manual will contain a schematic that shows where the header is and which pins power what. Some board makers, pioneered by Asus with its "Q-Connector," provide a small block that plugs into the front-panel pin header, covering it entirely, but with an identical pinout on top of it. This lets you plug in the appropriate wires outside the PC case, then plug in the connector as a whole. A MOSFET for "metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor" is a type of transistor, that, in the context of computer motherboards, is used for voltage regulation.

From a nontechnical buyer's point of view, MOSFETs are not differentiating features, beyond a motherboard maker's claims of premium components.

Buying a Motherboard: 20 Terms You Need to Know | cibiltamonfi.cf

The actual components are often hidden beneath a passive heatsink to keep them cool during operation. As for capacitors, you'll see these electronic components scattered across a typical motherboard performing in a variety of subsystems, but their base function is to act as "holding pens" for electrical charge. Depending on where they are used, they can take on different shapes though usually, little drums , sizes, and colors. As a buying consideration, they are relevant only insofar as the type of capacitor is sometimes heralded as a premium feature. Run-of-the-mill capacitors are electrolytic , containing a small volume of material soaked with a liquid.

Depending on the quality of manufacture and the expected lifespan, these kinds of capacitors can swell and leak over time, leading to board failure. The PC-enthusiast community generally rallies around Japanese-made electrolytic capacitors as a better bet for longevity, and motherboard makers tend to trumpet "Japanese capacitors" if they are present.

We can't verify how accurate this longtime claim is, however. Solid-state capacitors, on the other hand, are immune to leakage and thus preferred. Just about all PC cases have a headphone and microphone jack that terminates, inside the case, in a cable with a pin header connector. This plugs into a pin grid on the motherboard called an "HD Audio" header.


In a nutshell, HD Audio brings auto-detection functionality to the ports, allowing the system to sense the presence of devices plugged into the ports and behave accordingly. The pin header is sometimes labeled on the motherboard as "AAFP," for the "analog audio front panel" cable. For your case's audio cable: pin AAFP header connection one pin is missing for keying. In earlier times, this connector on the board was often an "AC '97" header, and during the transition time between the two, some motherboards provided a selector in the BIOS to let you switch the operation of the board's audio silicon between the AC '97 and HD Audio modes.

The pin connector is physically the same. Ignore the latter. And with a new motherboard and case, you'll definitely be using the former connector, as HD Audio is the current standard. That's the only one of the two you need to know nowadays. It's employed by hard drives, SSDs, and optical drives alike.

These indicate the maximum data transfer rate possible with an attached drive. To gain the maximum throughput benefit, both drive and motherboard must support the same SATA spec, but any new motherboard and drive you'll be considering these days will support SATA 3 exclusively. SATA 2 will come into play nowadays only in legacy gear.

Note that on a given motherboard, some of the SATA ports may be handled by different controller chips, possibly meaning different capabilities. The manual should explain any nuances among the ports. If you've ever built a PC, torn down a PC, or upgraded a motherboard, you've tugged at the large power-supply cable plugged into this connector. A bulky receptacle with two rows of 12 pins, this connector is the main power source for your system, accepting the by-far-biggest power cable coming off a desktop PC's power supply.

The pin ATX is now a standard connector at the motherboard end. At a transition time in the mids, many power supplies started showing up with ATX power connectors that were split into pin and four-pin portions that could snap together. That's because older boards required just the pin connection; the additional four pins added extra circuits at different voltage levels. Many modern power supplies still split the pin connector into these two pieces as a compatibility sop to these older board designs.

On modern motherboards, the CPU power connector is a dedicated four-pin two by two or eight-pin two by four power connection, usually positioned near the actual CPU socket. A matching cable from any recent-model PC power supply will fit in here—the cable will often be labeled "CPU power. The eight-pin version of the CPU power connector on an Asus board.

This and the pin ATX connector aren't really shopping concerns on the motherboard end if you're looking at new boards pretty much any modern motherboard will have these , but they are connections to account for on your PC's power supply if you're transplanting or reusing a power supply that's older. A cluster of four pins to which you connect a chassis fan.

Motherboards typically come studded with these, the more the larger the board. The PWM header allows for fine control over fan speeds based on temperature guidelines that are set at a system level. The header sends a volt current through one pin to power the fan, while a control signal on another pin tells the fan the amount of current to draw, regulating the speed thus PWM, for "pulse width modulation". You'll want to be sure that a motherboard you're choosing has enough of these headers to accommodate the fans in your chassis.

Some case fans will have only a three-pin connector; you can plug these into a four-pin header, but you won't get the speed control.

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Many motherboards from the last couple of years have adopted a new type of slot, dubbed M. They are shaped like gumsticks and come in a variety of lengths, indicated by a numeric code in their names. Most of the M. See our picks for the best M. You'll want to know what lengths of M. Most new boards have at least one M. Compact or space-constrained boards may have an M.

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Also, some boards provide thermal solutions that screw down or snap over the M. Much less common than M. You'll see it here and there on high-end motherboards. It isn't a must-have feature, by any means, but it's good to know why it's there.

System Requirements (Mac)

Dedicated on-motherboard RGB headers have emerged in the last couple of years, as RGB mood lighting has invaded the motherboard itself and now extends to light strips that you can snake around your PC case's interior. These headers use a four- or five-pin connection, much like a case-fan header, to which you can connect discrete LED strips. The RGBW headers provide for purer whites in the lighting and work with specific RGBW strips; these headers should also accept the four-pin strips if that is what you have, but check the manual for details.

An RGBW five-pin header; you can plug in four-pin strips, too. To control the patterns and colors, RGB headers and any RGB lighting built into the boards themselves work with software solutions provided by the motherboard maker. CMOS stands for "complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor.