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Yet, licensing decisions are particularly difficult to make because they display a high level of technical, commercial and legal uncertainty. Therefore, technology licensing requires highly proficient management.

In this regard the real options RO framework appears quite promising, because it is adapted to uncertain contexts. Patents have been early recognized by the literature as real options, and we have anecdotal evidence of the use of real options by firms for their licensing decisions. In this article, our objective is to review the patent strategy literature dealing with real options, and lay out a foundation for future research on the application of the RO framework to licensing decisions.

Faux Titre

We find that the literature has concentrated on the use of real options in the domain of patent rights management, while RO applications to licensing decisions remain limited to specific uses. We therefore systematically investigate whether the various types of licensing-in and licensing-out decisions follow a real options logic. We find that not all licensing decisions can be analogized to real options. Key determinants of the real options logic are in particular the maturity of the licensed technology, and the motivations pursued by the innovator to license-out the technology.

We analyze the potential benefits and limits of applying real options to licensing decisions, both from a managerial and academic perspective. Finally, we derive a research agenda from our analysis. This paper contributes to the study of work-life balance practices in very constrained environments such as Professional Service Firms. Cravath law firm and assumes that young professionals are willing to sacrifice their personal life to be eventually co-opted partner.

We then show that a few recent studies lead us to question this assumption and wonder whether this specific system may have lost its incentive power.

Robespierre (Maximilien de, ) - Biographie

We then ask the following question: Do Professional Service Firms intend to respond to growing demands of work-life balance and how can they, given their very constrained organisation, accommodate them? It contributes to the understanding of work-life balance in Professional Service Firms in several ways. First, we confirm that consulting firms are confronted with demands of flexibility. Yet, we find that Human Resources Directors and Partners have two distinct standpoints on the issue: a first group explains this phenomenon is in line with the normal functioning of the up-or-out system, while a second group admits struggling to retain some promising consultants and trying to address their demands.

Our comparative case study then shows that consulting firms attempt to accommodate demands of work-life balance and flexibility through a number of arrangements concerning: time, location, project assignment and client relationship management. We go on to propose a framework of analysis of work-life balance arrangements in Professional Service Firms highlighting the role played by the leverage model, fee billing practices, the length of projects and their location, which are all strongly influenced by the type of advice provided.

A large body of literature has emphasised the importance of every day forms of resistance in the workplace. In this paper, we seek to overcome the criticism of localism and banality that has been directed towards the everyday view of individualistic resistance as well as the limits of the conception of creative resistance that aims to co-produce change within a given system of power.

We focus on a local, highly individual, spontaneous and not formally organized kind of resistance, but one that builds on dissensus and reconfigures the order of a situation radically. Today, video game developers are faced to a disconnection between the value creation resulting from innovation and the value capture generated by the sale of innovation. In the literature, this disconnection refers to a strategic dilemma cooperation versus integration and organizational dilemma open model versus closed-model within the innovation process.

In our opinion, the literature does not give any clear answer about the organizational forms which could solve this dilemma. This article analyzes the way the video game developers organize their innovation process to combine the value creation with a high level of value capture. Based on a qualitative methodology and four case studies, we show that the question of the combination can be resolved by organizing certain phases of the innovation process differently. Therefore, by adopting an open model in the upstream phases through cooperation , and a closed-model in the downstream phases through integration , the developers can optimize value creation and value capture.

Finally, this research contributes to the studies on innovation and value logics and participates in creating a better understanding of the video games sector. Even when accelerated by a jolt, deinstitutionalisation is most often a long process constituted by short timestep and long timestep periods. Little has been said however to explain the pace of deinstitutionalisation and the factors that may accelerate or slow down this process.

Not only strategic actions contribute to deinstitutionalisation. Multiple actions are involved and have an impact on the pace of deinstitutionalisation, depending on efforts of maintenance and disruption which may be opposed, isolated or cumulated. Our case is supported by a longitudinal analysis of the deinstitutionalisation of asbestos in France during the 20th century.

In this empirical qualitative paper based on an artistic experiment, we determine whether or not art can help put critical performativity to work in the Management Education context. We use an ethnographic posture both in the academic world and during the workshop, combined with interviews. Le luxe est un objet de recherche en essor en marketing.

Etats-Uniens ou Américains, that is the question

The business ecosystems, open innovation, platforms and systemic innovation are the concepts that are growing fast; they share the multi-actor context and the alignment on a common comprehension of the business. On the other hand the business model concept has been developing in the recent years mostly having a focal firm perspective so it does not provide lenses or tools adapted to such multi-actor contexts. In this regard, through an action research methodology we developed an ecosystem business model design tool within a public-private innovation project for transportation.

The Ecosystem Business Model EBM includes mapping, matrix and histogram tools to interpret and simulate cost-revenue structure as one of the aspects of business models. These tools helped to overcome the complexity of collective design for the business model within a multi-actor innovation project and assisted different actors to coordinate and collaborate together to establish a business ecosystem for innovation.

This communication calls to open the business model literature to the business ecosystem context. Servitization is a well-established phenomenon both in business practice and in academic research.

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It describes a move by manufacturers from offering product-centric value propositions to ones that rely on service elements that support, complement or enhance the product or equipment. Servitization therefore represents a change of business model that involves specifying a new or enhanced value proposition and re-configuring the value- creating system that delivers it.

Most studies investigate servitization from the perspective of the provider and its customers. The value creation system comprises all the activities and resources that play a role in supporting the value proposition including the customer and supply chain members.

Bruno Bernardi

Academic research investigating the effects of adopting a service-centric business model on the characteristics and the management of the supply chain has been limited until now. The purpose of this paper is to develop a research framework to inform future empirical work on the impact of servitization on supply chain management SCM. We build on the main conceptualisations of the servitization phenomenon in the literature as well as on the nascent literature that investigates SCM in a servitized context to develop our research framework.

The framework suggests that supply chains supporting the provision of different categories of value propositions are likely to operate differently. In other words, the characteristics and management of the supply chain are contingent on the type of value proposition it supports. Our literature review identifies two main categories of value propositions that can be considered polar opposites. We also reveal the core supply chain management themes that are to be explored empirically.

The themes include supply chain configuration, information sharing and communication, manifestations of relationships, supplier relationship management, innovation, risk, human resources and process management and integration. The framework supports the exploration of basic and advanced value propositions and the resultant implications on the characteristics and management of the supply chain.

This provides a useful platform for future empirical research on the impact of servitization on supply chain management. Ses avantages sont multiples. Both cluster and value chain approaches emphasize the role of cluster governance in fostering innovation, upgrading and sustainability as en essential complement to transaction costs and incidental synergies arising from agglomeration.

Nevertheless, recent contributions have stressed that more attention needs to be paid to the concrete governance practices that facilitate the emergence of a specific institutional environment conducive to enhanced collaboration for innovation and upgrading. In this study, we contribute to this debate developing an integrative framework of 8 sets of institutional practices of innovation grouped around three main levers — political, normative and cognitive.

Based on a comparative case study of three French clusters of innovation — one technopole and two recent competitiveness clusters — we find that 1 each cluster governances activates all institutional levers and practices but with a high variation of intensity, and that 2 these variations of intensity match the upgrading at the cluster level. To explore the consequences of category spanning on audience appeal, most of the studies only take into account an overall evaluation of multiple category members, but not an evaluation for each category spanned.

Everything takes place as if a multi-category firm receives a unique and all-encompassing evaluation.

Yet, a multi-category firm gets several audience evaluations — one for each category spanned — that affect each other. This paper fills this gap between the empirical tests 1 unique overall evaluation for multi-category members and the theoretical assumption in the literature several specific evaluations connected by audiences leading to confusion.

Our proposition invites critical scholars to reconsider the performative potential of the organizational culture concept particularly for alternatives organizations. After having recognized a general, contextualized and somewhat legitimate anti-performative stance of what we call Critical Researches on Organizational Culture CROC , we rely on recent pleas for critical performativity to suggest tactics and research inquiries in favor of a more performative approach.

More precisely, we propose that performative CROC would 1 principally concentrate on alternatives, 2 seek comprehensive frameworks for observing and analyzing cultural tensions in such organizations and 3 overcome the against culture stance that usually emanate from CROC literature in allowing and encouraging local and progressive forms of cultural management.

Vanuatu : oscillation entre diversité et unité

Such tactics, we believe, might contribute practically and empirically to the following: reconsider the contribution and limits of critical research on organizational culture CROC in organizational theory; apply the idea of critical performativity to organizational culture researches, develop cultural researches on alternatives and imagine alternative and pragmatic ways for studying and managing cultural matters on such organizations.

This paper questions if the most advanced companies in terms of internationalization tend to reduce their international exposure overtime. On a sample of highly internationalized multinationals observed over a 10 year-period , we discuss and explore the effects of internationalization on performance and we find an inverted U-shaped relationship between internationalization, confirming the existence of an optimal degree of internationalization.

Ergonomie et conduite du changement

The major finding of this research is that beyond this optimum, the most advanced companies in terms of internationalization tend to reduce their international footprint over time, unlike the other companies. What remains of power and resistance when the fundamental antagonism between capital and labour — traditionally considered their main determinant within organisation studies — is absent?

In order to investigate this question, the present study draws on a piece of ethnographic work, namely one year of participant observation as a factory worker, which I conducted within a French co-operative sheet-metal factory.